Technical Articles

Rotor Stator Mixer Design Shifts Into High Gear: A new high-energy, high-shear mixer rewrites the rulebook...again.

A new mixer design has recently pushed high-energy, high-shear rotor/stator mixing into new territory. With an innovative rotor/stator generator developed in the Ross Test & Development Center, the new mixer is capable of ultra-high shear mixing, dispersion, emulsification, homogenization and particle size reduction. But unlike other mixers that apply intense shearing action, this one does not force manufacturers to choose between a high shear rate and a high flow rate. It delivers both.

The revolution continues.

The new mixer - called the MegaShear* - continues the revolution in rotor/stator design that began in the late 1980s and exploded in the following decade. For equipment users, it means that rotor/stator mixing technology now provides a cost-efficient answer for even more processing challenges. And now, with an inline design that can deliver both high flow and ultra-high shear in a single pass, it addresses other critical needs in production, as well – by providing higher throughput, improved process control, and superior end-product consistency.

But the MegaShear and others in the new generation of rotor/stator mixers haven’t made earlier designs obsolete - and that may be the single most remarkable result of the recent revolution in rotor/stator mixing. Instead, they have extended the spectrum of products that can be produced successfully with a rotor/stator mixer. For this reason, the application and value of the newest rotor/stator design is most clearly understood in the context of the entire rotor/stator family.

In the beginning, there were batch rotor/stator mixers

The basic, single-stage rotor/stator mixer has been around for more than 30 years. Immersed in a mix vessel, a rotor turns at high speed within a stationary stator. As the blades of the rotor pass each port in the stator, they expel material at high velocity into the surrounding mix. They also physically shear particles and droplets - quickly grinding solids and hydraulically shearing droplets. As fast as material is expelled, more material is drawn into the rotor/stator generator from below, which promotes continuous flow and thorough mixing.

With a variety of stator designs, this rotor/stator mixer easily replaces propellers, turbines and high speed dispersers in many applications. Applying intense mechanical and hydraulic shear, and generating vigorous flow in a low-viscosity batch, mixing cycles are commonly shortened by more than 50%. It is a good choice for applications that require fast particle/droplet size reduction to a threshold of about 4-10 microns - including many foods, chemicals and textile colors.

The inline rotor/stator alternative

A batch mixer operating in an open vessel is easy and inexpensive to maintain, and it can be moved quickly from one vessel to another. But it also presents significant limitations, because batch mixing efficiency is directly related to flow within the vessel. As viscosity and vessel size increase, adequate flow becomes difficult to maintain. “Dead spots” in the vessel prevent homogeneity.

Poor flow also causes an uneven distribution of heat within the vessel. Zones of localized heat can cause thermal degradation, unacceptably high levels of off-spec batches, and - at minimum - slow mixing cycles. In marginal cases, supplemental agitation can solve this problem, especially when viscosity exceeds 10,000 cps. A shaft-mounted propeller can generate axial flow (and also accelerate the addition of dry solids that require a vigorous vortex). An anchor agitator can move material from the vessel wall toward the rotor/stator generator. But as vessel size increases, the process eventually becomes prohibitively expensive to run.

A small inline rotor/stator mixer - using a rotor/stator generator similar to the one used in a batch mixer - can handle a batch of virtually any size by recirculating material until the cycle is finished. A supplemental pump is generally unnecessary at viscosities below 10,000 cps, because a single-stage rotor/stator mixer usually produces enough pumping action on its own to recirculate the batch. With a supplemental pump, an in-line rotor/stator mixer can efficiently handle viscosities well beyond the practical limits of a batch system - above 1,000,000 cps.

In-line mixing systems are also versatile on a process line that requires frequent changeover from one product to another. A simple valve can divert the finished product downstream or switch instantly from one source vessel to another. Solids and liquids can also be injected directly into the high shear zone of the in-line mixer. This is much faster than additions in a batch configuration, especially when adding lightweight solids such as fumed silica or viscosity modifiers.

Today, many process engineers are looking for more control and greater accuracy than a batch system can provide. The in-line system meets this challenge, because product sampling is easier and more reliable, and recirculation is more closely controlled. In-line viscometers, temperature probes, flow meters and other instruments all feed data to the control system, which manages the cycle at a high level of accuracy. Multi-stage generators multiply the shearing events per pass

Until the arrival of “multi-stage” rotor/stator generators, the drive to produce products with smaller particle/droplet sizes was answered mainly with prolonged recirculation. This certainly produced more homogeneous batches, but even lengthy recirculation cannot increase the shear rate of a single-stage rotor/stator generator.

This threshold was broken when “multi-stage” rotor/stator generators were introduced. With 2-4 rotor/stator pairs nested concentrically, mix material moves outward from the center of the multi-stage unit, and it is subjected to a quick succession of shearing events.


Click for Articles